Azadirachta indica is found every where in India especially in semi-arid conditions. The people of India for has used Neem safely and effectively from last so many years. In fact the people of India called this tree as “The Village Pharmacy”. Modern western medicine is finally discovering what the ancient Indians have known for thousands of years: that the neem tree has superb pharmaceutical and pesticide controlling qualities. The azadirachton compound in neem has been recognized as an effective insecticide that is biologically selective, not harming the useful pest-predators but keeping almost 250 harmful ones at bay.
Botanical name: Azadirachta indica
Latin name: Melia azaderach
English name : Margosa tree, Indian Lilac, Paradise Tree, Arishta, Nimba, Minbaka, Neem, Nimba, Limba, Limbado, Leemgo, Bukhain, Drekh, Nim, Kondavepa, Bevu, Hebbevu, Kakopholo, Limbo, Nimo
The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a tropical evergreen with a wide adaptability. Native to India and Burma, it has been transplanted to Africa, the Middle East, South America and Australia for its medicinal value. It is especially suited to semi-arid conditions and thrives even in the poorest soil with rainfalls as little as 18 inches per year and temperatures up to 50° C . It may grow up to 50 feet tall and live for 200 years.
Its blossoms are small, white flowers with a very sweet, jasmine-like scent. Its edible fruit is about 3/4 of an inch long, with white kernels. The pinnate leaves have a very bitter taste and a garlic-like smell.
Raw Neem parts used are:
Neem Leaves, Seeds, Bark, Fruit, Flower, Twig, Root, Kernel and gum which is a by product obtained as a result of certain metabolic mechanism of plants and trees. The Neem bark, due to some internal activity discharges a clear, bright and brown-colored gum. Neem Gum is used in Cosmetic Industry, Paper Industry, Pharmaceutical Industry, Textile Industry, Personal Hygiene Industry, Food Industry etc.
Chemical Compounds in Neem
The scientists feel that there are many more compounds yet to be identified in neem. Other than sodium, potassium, salts, it contains chloriphill, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, vitamin C, carotene, and oxalic acid. The chemicals compounds found in neem extract are:
Nimbin, Nimbidin, Ninbidol, Gedunin, Sodium nimbinate, Quercetin, Salannin, Azadirachtin,
The highest concentrations of the active ingredients are found in the seed and oil, however these are also found in lesser amounts in the bark and the leaves.
neem plays a traditional role in the treatment of urinary disorders, skin disease, diabetes, fungi infections and viral diseases. Neem hair treatment clears scalp infections and dandruff and stimulates both the growth and texture of the hair and rids the scalp of nits, dry itchy scalp and excessive oiliness. The anti bacterial property of neem is used to manufacture neem gel which maintains the oral hygiene and helps prevent periodontal diseases.In Africa the tree is used as a shade tree and as a source of fuelwood. In the Sahel countries, neem as been used for halting the spread of the Sahara desert. In many developing countries the wood is used in making fence post, poles for house construction, and furniture. Neem oil doesn’t kill pests outright, It affects their physiologic processes so that they no longer eat, mate or mature.